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## GENERAL LINEAR MODELS AND GENERALISED LINEAR MODELS – DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES

By RAFAŁ WAŚKO (Predictive Solutions) In data analysis, the use of generalised linear models is common because of their simplicity and ease of interpretation of the results obtained. However, there are times when the analyst encounters situations where the assumptions...

## BAYESIAN INFERENCE

By NATALIA AFEK (Predictive Solutions) Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference. It is named after Thomas Bayes, the British mathematician and pastor who first formulated Bayesian probability theory in the 18th century. It is a method of data analysis...

## DATA GAPS IN QUANTITATIVE DATA ANALYSIS – WHAT ARE THEY AND HOW TO DEAL WITH THEM?

By RAFAŁ WAŚKO (Predictive Solutions) Missing data in the context of data analysis refers to situations where there are no values for certain variables or observations in a dataset. In other words, they are places where a number, text, or some other form of data was...

## RECODING QUANTITATIVE VARIABLES INTO QUALITATIVE ONES – TECHNIQUES AND THEIR PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS

By NATALIA AFEK (Predictive Solutions) When analyzing data, we consider both quantitative information (such as salary, age, number of products ordered) and qualitative information (such as gender, education, level of satisfaction with service). In order to make it...

## STRUCTURE OF THE POPULATION PYRAMID

By NATALIA AFEK (Predictive Solutions) When looking for the best way to visualize the data you have, you may come across an impressively wide range of different types of charts - from simple, basic ones such as a scatter plot, to very advanced ones like a Sankey...

## THE THREE-SIGMA RULE

By RAFAŁ WAŚKO (Predictive Solutions) The three-sigma rule is an important tool in statistics and quality management. In the context of data analysis, it allows the identification of outlier points that are significantly different from the rest of the data. The use of...

## SEGMENTATION: FROM GROUPING TO CLASSIFICATION

By RAFAŁ WAŚKO (Predictive Solutions) Segmentation is a key process in data analysis, dividing a data set into relatively homogeneous groups based on specific criteria. The purpose of segmentation is to identify hidden patterns, differences and similarities between...

## OUTLIER OR ANOMALY? DETECTION OF ABNORMAL OBSERVATIONS

Von NATALIA GOLONKA (Predictive Solutions) Can one abnormal occurrence cause concern? Based on one deviation from the norm, should a red light start flashing? Of course! In many industries and businesses, an anomaly is a sign that must be reacted to quickly and...

## ENTROPY

By NATALIA GOLONKA (Predictive Solutions) Entropy is a measure of disorder or uncertainty in a probability distribution.The concept was first introduced in 1854 by the physicist Rudolf Clausius, dealing with thermodynamic issues, and in this sense the definition of...

## STATISTICAL INFERENCE

By NATALIA GOLONKA (Predictive Solutions) Statistical inference is the branch of statistics through which it becomes possible to describe, analyse and make inferences about the whole population on the basis of a sample.Studying the entire population can be a very...